It’s a prudent idea doing research on how long is milk good after sell by date or expiry date if you don’t want to drink or consume what will harm your body system.Milk is something that gets easily spoiled if after opened and didn’t place in a very cold environment. If you open sealed milk, the best way to preserve it is to store deep inside the refrigerator not at the door side!However, either your milk expiring date lapse or not milk can be easily spoiled if proper care is not taken after open it.So today, I will be taking you through how good is milk after the expiration date or let me say how long is milk good after sell by date.

How long is milk good after sell by date?

To be candid with you, milk can be easily spoiled if proper preservation is not put in place. In the USA people often throw out expired milk can not knowing it can also be consumed after the sell-by date.
How long is milk good after sell by date
Milk is good for at least a week (7 days) after the sell by date, sometimes 2 weeks (14 days) depending on the temperature of your refrigerator.In short, if milk doesn’t change or smell somehow different from normal milk smell that means it can still be drinking. That is if it smells nice and ok!

What does sell-by date means?

The sell-by date is the date; month/day/year a product will expire and become harmful for consumption.If milk or any consumable product lapse its sell-by date there would be additional days to restriction from consuming it.

How Good is milk after the expiration date?

How good is milk after the expiration date is the same thing as how long is milk good after sell by date. Though each question needs clarification.To be sincere with you, if you are a type with enough cash you don’t need to consume expiry food products. Though foods like milk are very delicate to consume after their expiration date.Even on a normal day if you purchase milk from the store and you open it without proper preservation it will give a sour taste and may get spoiled within some days which becomes harmful for consumption.
Milk is good 5 to 7 days after the expiration date or sometimes it last longer than a week. All depends on the temperature of your refrigerator!How good is milk after expiration date?

How long is skim milk good after Sell by date?

Either skim milk or reduced-fat milk, milk is milk! so far it’s classified as milk they share the same attribution after expiring date.The date we always see at the label of each food we buy is not really their expiry date. They often add at least 3 weeks to their sell by date so it is safe to consume milk on the day of expiring.Don’t be amazed, i hope you get what i just explained now? for example, I bought milk with a sell by date as follows; Dec 22, 2020. This doesn’t mean if I consume this product on the 23rd it would be like I consume poison.Hell no! there are still additional weeks ahead depending on your refrigerator temperature but to be aware of poisonous consuming this is made to create awareness that after Dec 22, 2020, this milk may start tasting differently.This applicable to skim milk as well. I hope i have answered your question on how long is skim milk good after sell by date? Good!

How long is milk good for at room temperature?

At room temperature, milk is good for at least 2-3 days to its listed date. Though if it still tastes good it is still safe to consume.This is not about how long is milk good for at room temp any more, it would purely be a judge on the taste your milk still gives.If it still tasting good that means you can still drink it but if others don’t try consuming it as if may result to food poisoning.

How long is milk good after sell by date if opened?

If milk is opened after the sell by date it will last at least 2-3 days past its listed date. But if unopened, it last 5 to 8 days to the sell by date.I hope you get it right? if opened it last at least 2-3 days, if unopened it last 5-8 days to its listed date!

How long does lactose-free milk last after opening?

Lactose-free milk last 3-5 days after opening. This still depends on the temperature of your refrigerator.Just like what i told you the other time while i was explaining how long is milk good after sell by date, If at room temperature it lasts a week but if store in a very cold area it may last 2 weeks.

How long is Lactaid milk good for once opened?

Just like lactose-free milk, Lactaid milk is still good for at least 3 days once opened. This is not applicable to either lactose-free, skim milk or Lactaid milk alone but all types of milk!And i think the in-depth answer has been given when i was explaining How long is milk good after sell by date. Please kindly go back if not understandable!

Is Expired Milk Safe to Drink or Consume?

Yes, you can still consume/ drink expired milk as long as it has been properly refrigerated, it should be consumable/drinkable up to a week or more depending on the temperature.According to healthline, unopened milk generally stays good for five to seven days past its sell by date, while opened milk will last at least two to three days past this date.

Frequency Asked Questions on How long is milk good after sell by date

Below are some FAQ about How long is milk good after sell by date which i think you would find useful:
  • What happens if you drink expired milk?
  • Can you drink milk after the use-by date?
  • How do you know when milk goes bad?

What happens if you drink expired milk?

If it happens you mistakenly drink a small quantity of expired milk you are on a safer side and it won’t harm you in any way. (That is if you mistakenly sip small quantity)But if what you have consumed is more than 6 tablespoon, it will have an effect which may lead to vomiting and so on. If happens, kindly see a qualified doctor!

Can you drink milk after the use by date?

I think i have already answered this question above which you can find under the sub-heading “How long is milk good after sell by date” but let me still make some clarifications.The straight forward answer to this, if the milk still tastes good and the scent not bad it can still be drinkable. But if has lost taste in any form or it smells somehow then avoid drinking it.

How do you know when milk goes bad?

This is very simple! If milk goes bad its good characteristics will disappear.The taste would be somehow sour, it will smell bad and its look would look unhealthy for consumption.You can watch the additional video below to back my point on how long is milk good after sell by date. Though they explained how long does milk last after expiration date.

My conclusion on how long is milk good after sell by date

Don’t try throwing out your milk if it’s still tasting good or the smell doesn’t change in any form.I hope this help ascertaining on how long is milk good after sell by date? Good!Please kindly note that even if you store your milk the right way/place and the smell or taste changes don’t hesitate to throw such milk because it is no more healthy for your body to consume.The main point here is, milk is good a week after the sell by date or lets me say 2 weeks depending on your refrigerator temperature.When at room temperature, it lasts for 2-3 days!What are your thoughts on this clarification about “how long is milk good after sell by date? Don’t forget to share this post with friends and family!

So you’ve heard about Glyphosate herbicide? and you wish to know how effective their products are, how to apply and achieve the best result you could ever imagine.

Before anything I would like to share more light on the followings;

  • What is glyphosate?
  • What is glyphosate used for?
  • Is glyphosate a herbicide or pesticide
  • how does glyphosate work?
  • How long does glyphosate take to work?

Now let’s get a hand in to work.

What is Glyphosate herbicide?

glyphosate herbicide

What is glyphosate herbicide? According to Wikipedia, glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant. It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate, which acts by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. It is used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses that compete with crops.

Glyphosate herbicide
image from wikipedia

In 1970, Glyphosate herbicide was discovered/invented by John E. Franz (born December 21, 1929) who is an organic chemist while he was working at Monsanto company and design to work on post emergence herbicides.

Glyphosate is a herbicide in which when we apply it to plants it kill both broadleaf plants and grasses. The herbicide is widely used in the United State of American and some other closed countries.

What is glyphosate used for?

What is glyphosate used for? Like I told you earlier, glyphosate is a herbicide which we can use to kill both broadleaf plants and grasses.

Also, glyphosate being one of the best herbicides used in the United States act systemically. Meaning it selects what it acts on.

Is glyphosate a herbicide or pesticide?

I think with the point I’ve made above you should be able to deduce a good point, but still i would be straight forward with my answer to the question is glyphosate a herbicide or pesticide?

Let me start this way, Herbicide is any chemical substances we can use to control weeds or kill unwanted plants. While pesticide is what we can to kill pest on our plant.

Please don’t get it wrong, the pesticide is for pest control while herbicide is meant for weed control.

Glyphosate is not a pesticide but it is an herbicide. Though you may find glyphosate in some products of pesticide like that of roundup, and the active chemical in this produce is glyphosate.

How does glyphosate work?

Glyphosate herbicide work in the sense that it kills unwanted plants or weed. I must tell you this, according to npic, Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide, meaning it will kill most plants.

Glyphosate prevents unwanted plants from making certain proteins that are needed for plant growth. Glyphosate stops a specific enzyme pathway, the shikimic acid pathway. The shikimic acid pathway is necessary for plants and some microorganisms.

READ ALSO: Top 10 best pre emergent herbicide for weed control

How long does glyphosate herbicide take to work?

Glyphosate herbicides begin to work immediately you applied it, the herbicide will coat the leave and start the reaction.

It takes the range of 4 to 20 days for the complete killing of plants. Glyphosate is more effective when the plants receive no rainfall or water after applying. 60 Degrees Fahrenheit is more preferable.

Now let me dive into the main topic and discuss the Top 8 Best Recommended Glyphosate herbicide.

The Best Recommended Glyphosate Herbicide

If you ever wondered how you can easily kill a weed, then you will find this my top 7 selected glyphosate herbicide useful:

  1. Eraser 41% Weed Killer Herbicide.
  2. Eraser Max Herbicide.
  3. Agrisel Gly Pho-Sel Pro 41% (Glyphosate Herbicide)
  4. Roundup Pro Concentrate – 2.5 gallons.
  5. Roundup QuikPro Herbicide.
  6. Roundup Promax – High Concentrate Glyphosate 48.7%
  7. Rodeo Herbicide -2.5 Gallons.


Eraser 41% Weed Killer Herbicide

Eraser weed killer is a non-selective, broad-spectrum herbicide for annual and perennial weeds, woody brush, and trees. Eraser works as a post-emergent herbicide with no residual soil activity.

As a non-selective glyphosate herbicide, Eraser will kill grass, plants and weeds that are directly sprayed. It is relatively non-toxic to dogs and other domestic animals and has no residual soil activity.

The reason why it is being called Eraser 41% weed killer is that it contains 41% glyphosate with a surfactant for added effectiveness.

Eraser 41% Weed Killer Herbicide - glyphosate herbicide

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  •  Eraser 41% contains the same active ingredient as Roundup and Eraser but has the maximum allowed dosage of surfactants so the kill is better and you’ll get noticeable results a lot quicker.
  • Eraser 41% Weed Killer Herbicide is a broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide that comes from soil bacteria. Often sold as ammonia salt, it is a contact herbicide with no soil residual.
  • There’s no need for additional surfactants because it already contains a surfactant.


  • Expensive (but worths your money).

How Eraser 41% Kills Weeds

As a systemic, Eraser Weed and Grass Killer travel from the point of foliage contact to the root system. You will see visible effects of Eraser working on annual weeds within 2-4 days and perennial weeds after about 7 days. If the weather is cloudy or cool after treatment, the weather may slow down the activity of Eraser, and visible results may be delayed.

Visible effects are seen at first as a slow wilting and yellowing. The next step is an overall browning of growth above the ground and then a breakdown and deterioration of the plant underground.

Eraser 41% Application:

Use 1 1/3 oz per gallon of water to control most annual weeds; use 2 2/3 oz to control tougher or hard to kill perennial weeds. It is easier to control annual weeds when they are small.

Eraser AP (2.5 gallon)

Eraser AP is a Glyphosate 41%, non-selective, and broad-spectrum herbicide. It is labelled for non-crop, industrial, turf and ornamental weed control. Used in agricultural and farm areas, it treats annual and perennial weeds, trees, vines and shrubs, pasture grasses, forage legumes and rangelands. Labelled for a number of agricultural crops including Round-Up Ready crops.

Eraser Max Herbicide – (Glyphosate Herbicide)

Eraser Max Super Concentrate Glyphosate Herbicide

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Eraser Max is a concentrated formula of glyphosate and imazapyr that is very effective against many weeds, vines, grasses and trees. A single application will kill weeds for up to a year.

Eraser Max is for use outside on non-crop areas, bare ground for total vegetation control, and spot treatment for weeds, grasses, vines and trees. It is perfect for gravel paths, fence rows, around barns and farm buildings.


  • Kills weeds and grasses, roots and all
  • Season-long control
  • Rainfast in one hour
  • Use 7.4 oz per 1,000 square feet
  • One gallon treats 17,297 square feet.



When to Use?

Apply Eraser Max when weeds are present or to bare ground. Cut or mow the weeds if they are taller than six inches and wait a couple of weeks for new growth. If brush or woody vines are cut or mowed, wait until they have a full leaf formation before treatment. In areas of heavy rainfall, retreat in 6-8 months if necessary.

How much Eraser max per Gallon?

Do you wish to know how much eraser max per gallon? As at the time this post was made, eraser max cost $64.45 on Doyourownpestcontrol website and $49.9 on amazon.

Total Vegetation Control (Bareground)

Best performance occurs when applications are made to actively grow weeds in early summer. Mix 7.4 oz in 1-10 gallons of water and uniformly spray over 1,000 square area. Apply the areas where bare ground and total vegetation control is desired. See label for maximum application rates.

Spot Control of Brush, Vines, and Weeds

Mix 6 oz of Eraser Max with one gallon of water and uniformly and thoroughly spray the foliage of woody plants to wet.

  • Apply to weeds, brush, and vines that are actively growing.
  • Woody brush and vines are controlled better in late summer and fall after fruit formation.
  • Wait until full leaf formation if brush or woody vines have been cut before treatment.
  • Wait for 2 months following treatment to mow or cut perennial weeds, vines or brush.

Agrisel Gly Pho-Sel Pro 41% – Glyphosate herbicide review

Gly Pho-sel Pro 41% - Glyphosate herbicide

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Agrisel Gly Pho-Sel Pro with 41% Glyphosate is a high quality fast-acting systemic total vegetation weed killer. If you sprayed on weeds and grasses, Gly Pho-Sel Pro 41% starts working fast, within 1-2 hours and kills weeds and grasses on contact, roots an all.

With the same active ingredient as Round-Up Pro, Gly Pho-Sel 41% gives fast and total vegetation and weed control. Gly Pho-Sel can be used by homeowners, golf courses, landscapers, and in agriculture, turf, ornamental and non-crop environments.

Active Ingredient includes:

  • 41% Glyphosate
  • 15% Surfactant for increased effectiveness

Target pests include:

  • A wide variety of weeds and grasses.
  • Annual and Perennial Broad-leaf Weeds and Grasses

See label for the complete list.


Use 1-2 oz. per gallon of water to control most annual weeds; use 2-4 oz. to control tougher or hard to kill perennial weeds.

Refer to product label for complete use instructions.


  • It contains the same active ingredient as Roundup but has the maximum allowed dosage of surfactants so the kill is better and you’ll get noticeable results a lot quicker.
  • It is a contact glyphosate herbicide with no soil residual.
  • This product kills fast. More preferably for weed and pest control.


  • Expensive (But worths your money).


Round Up Pro Concentrate 50.2% Glyphosate 2.5 Gallon Jug Systemic Herbicide

Round Up Pro Concentrate 50.2% Glyphosate 2.5 Gallon Jug Systemic Herbicide

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If you are looking for the best way to keep your property free of weeds then you would consider Roundup Pro Concentrate. Roundup Pro Concentrate contains glyphosate – this is the same reliable and proven product that has been used by thousands of people over the years.

This product is a post-emergence, systemic herbicide without soil residual. It is formulated as a water-soluble liquid containing surfactant. Roundup Pro Concentrate gives broad-spectrum control of many perennial weeds, annual weeds, woody brush and trees.

It has been tested and has proven results. No residual chemical is left behind, making it safer to use around your property. Roundup Pro Concentrate is the quick and easy way to get rid of any pesky weeds. If other glyphosate herbicides have failed to do the job, Roundup Pro Concentrate is the product to turn to. No other herbicide controls more weeds than Roundup Pro Concentrate.

The Round-Up Pro mix rate is 1-10.5 ounces per gallon of water depending on the target weed. When mixing roundup pro make sure to use only clean stainless steel or plastic sprayers.

How Roundup Pro Works – Glyphosate herbicide

Glyphosate (the active ingredient) inhibits an enzyme only found in plants that is essential to specific amino acids.

Visible symptoms start with a gradual wilting and yellowing of the plant to complete browning of above-ground growth, with the deterioration of underground plant parts.

You can start to see visible results on most annual weeds within 2-4 days; perennial weeds may take 7 days or more for visible results. Cool or cloudy weather after application may slow down activity with a delay of visible symptoms.


  • No residual chemical is left behind, making it safer to use around your property.
  • Provides effective weed control
  • Fully labelled for all turf, ornamental and forestry uses
  •  Kills weeds fast and completely
  • Rapidly translocated and kills the root
  • Quickly rainfast (one hour)
  • Environmentally Friendly


  • Expensive (But worths your money).
  • Harmful to mammalian if consumed.


Roundup QuikPro Glyphosate Herbicide

Roundup QuickPro, Herbicide by Monsanto is a systemic post-emergent herbicide providing a broad-spectrum control of most annual and perennial weeds. Roundup ProMax is a non-selective herbicide that is used to kill weeds and grasses in cracks of parking lots, driveways, flower beds, and along fence rows. Roundup ProMax works through the foliage down to the root killing the entire plant within days after application. Roundup ProMax Herbicide is pet and child friendly if applied properly.

Active Ingredient:

Glyphosate 48.7%

Target pests:

Roundup ProMax Herbicide is used for the control of most annual and perennial weeds and grasses with one application.

For use in:

Roundup ProMax Herbicide is for use in any area of vegetation. Extra care should be taken to ensure that non-target vegetation is protected from any drift.


Roundup ProMax Herbicide may be used in general non-crop and non-food crop areas and can be applied with any application equipment described within the label. Roundup Promax is used to trim-and-edge around objects in listed sites, for spot treatment of unwanted vegetation and to eliminate weeds growing in established shrub beds or ornamental plantings.

Roundup ProMax glyphosate herbicide can be used prior to planting an area to ornamentals, flowers, turfgrass (sod or seed), or prior to laying asphalt or beginning construction projects.

For the use of Roundup ProMax in a handheld sprayer or similar listed equipment mix at the rate of 0.5 to 9 ounces per gallon of water (rates vary depending on desired solution concentration).

Coverage Area:

If Roundup Pro Herbicide is used at the higher rate of use for weed control each 1.67-gallon container will treat an estimated 23,750 square feet of coverage.

Shelf Life:

Roundup ProMax Herbicide has a shelf life of 36 months if stored in a cool dry environment.

Time to Kill:

Roundup ProMax Herbicide provides immediate results but may take up to several treatments to gain full control of target weeds.

Check the video below to know more about this product.

No Residual Soil Activity

Quik Pro is not a pre-emergent, but a post-emergent. Weeds need to be emerged for this product to work since it does not stay active in the soil.


  • Post emergent herbicide
  • Non-selective
  • 1.5-oz. pack makes 1 gal. of spray solution of 2% solution
  • Used on parks and golf courses
  • Provides fast burn-down results within 24 hours
  • Easy to mix, water-soluble granule, no additional surfactant is recommended.


  • Expensive (But worths your money).

Roundup Promax glyphosate herbicide

Roundup Promax

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Roundup Promax has a smaller molecule size and a higher concentration of glyphosate (48.7%) than Roundup Pro. Roundup Pro and it’s generic equivalents that contain glyphosate are well known as systemic postemergence herbicides.

For those familiar with Roundup Pro or it’s generic Eraser (41% glyphosate), know they control a broad spectrum of weeds (annuals, perennials, woody brush and trees) with very little re-growth. However, Roundup Pro Max gets to the root faster, so if it rains in an hour you don’t have to worry. Round up Promax is rainfast in just 30 minutes.


  • More concentrated formulation
  • Provides quick control with virtually no regrowth
  • Consistent, professional performance
  • 30-minute rainfast warranty.


  • Only works for plants that have emerged from the soil, it will not affect the seeds.
  • Expensive (But worths your money).


Is it safe to use Roundup Promax on the entire lawn? Would it kill the grass?


Roundup Pro Max contains glyphosate which is a non-selective herbicide. Non-selective herbicides will kill just about any vegetation that they are sprayed on including grass.

Dow Rodeo Aquatic Herbicide 2.5 gallon Glyphosate

Rodeo glyphosate herbicide

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If you are looking for the best glyphosate herbicide that kills pond weeds with 53.8% glyphosate then you would consider Rodeo Herbicide. Rodeo Herbicide is excellent as a non-selective herbicide used in aquatic areas.

These aquatic areas include streams, drainage ditches, lakes, rivers, ponds, canals, and reservoirs. Rodeo Herbicide is also an effective brush killer, although it generally takes 7-10 days to kill perennial brushy plants. On most annual weeds, you will start to see results within 2-4 days.

Rodeo Herbicide has a label to kill more than 90 kinds of grasses, brush and broadleaf weeds.

How Rodeo Works

Rodeo is systemic, moving from the foliage to the roots. Kills the roots for several years.


2.5-gallon container treats up to 5 acres.

Target Pest:

Emergent plants like Cattails, Grasses, Bulrushes, Purple Loosestrife, Alligatorweed and Waterlilies. These plants can block pond or lake access. Cattails, in particular, is a troublesome weed in aquatic areas.

For Brush Control :

For control of perennial weeds and woody plants in aquatic and noncrop sites, also for use in wildlife habitat areas, for perennial grass release, and grass growth suppression.

 Controls annual weeds and perennial weeds. See label for a complete list.

For use:

Aquatic Sites: including all bodies of fresh and brackish water which may be flowing, non-flowing or transient. This includes lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, seeps, irrigation and drainage ditches, canals, reservoirs, estuaries and similar sites. Rodeo does not control plants which are completely submerged or have a majority of their foliage underwater.

Non-crop sites, wildlife habitat areas, perennial grass release and grass growth suppression.


  •  No limit on usage for irrigation, recreation or domestic purposes.
  • It is a non-selective and nonvolatile herbicide, binding to the soil particles in little time.
  •  be used around water areas.
  • Work so very fast.


  • Expensive (But worths your money).

I hope you found my top 7 reviews on Glyphosate herbicide helpful as expected? Don’t to share with friends and family!

In this blog post, you will learn how to take care of day old broiler chicks very effective without encountering any loss.

Introduction  To Modern broiler production is a highly specialized field of poultry production where genetic selection, management and nutrition are geared towards the production and marketing of a bird at the earliest age and at optimum cost.

Broilers are specially bred birds with the ability to grow fast, are quick feathering, and have a good conformation, are well covered with meat and convert food very efficiently. Broilers are normally fed ad libitum (i.e., without any restriction) from day old to finishing, by which time they should have attained just above 2 kg live weight with a feed conversion ration averaging.

For professional guide on how to take care of of day old broiler, you would to take good attention to the followings:


Yes before i start, let me quickly sum it up here and give you a list of what you need to raise day old broiler chicks from their first day on earth till harvesting period.

  • Feed and feeding management.
  • Regular water supply.
  • Brooding.
  • Ventilation.

Feeds and feeding management

Feed costs accounts for between 60 and 70% of the total variable costs of a broiler production enterprise. The prudent producer will therefore plan thoroughly all the feed requirements to avoid losses and unnecessary surpluses.

It is important to monitor feed consumption and weight on a regular basis. The performance of the birds can be checked against standards.

Day old chicks should be fed in feeder lids or plastic trays (1 per 100). The automatic feeders should be in place on arrival of the chicks and should be adjusted so as to rest directly on the litter.

I recommend this feeder lids which I’ve always recommends for farmer to use. Below are short descriptions about it:

day old broiler chicks



  • Can be easily clean when dirt.
  • They may be hung or sit on the ground.


  • It’s made of plastic, you need to be careful when handling.

Possible Questions & Answers.

Q: Does the handle push down making it waterproof?

A: No it doesn’t but we have it under cover and haven’t had any problem with it getting wet.

The feeder lids or trays should be removed as soon as birds have become accustomed to feeding from the mechanical feeders. This usually takes place around seven days of age.

Feeder height should be continually adjusted as the birds grow. The top edge of the feeders should be at the same level as the back of the birds.This helps to prevent feed wastage.

During the first two weeks, the chicks should be given starter mash or crumbles. For the remainder of the time, it is to be feed  pelleted  feeds.

The feed i would always recommend for broiler’s farmer is this Manna Pro Chick Starter|Medicated with Amprolium. Below are some descriptions about it:

Day old chicks


  • Medicated Complete Crumble for Chicks Ages 0-8 Weeks
  • Feed Manna Pro Poultry Grit Free Choice in a Separate Feeder, or Mix 1 lb with 40 lbs of Feed
  • Fortified with Vitamins and Minerals for Healthy Growth and South Development
  • Formulated for the Development of Active Immunity to Coccidiosis
  • Made with 18% Protein for Weight Gain and Muscle Development.


  • None.

Possible Questions & Answers.

Q: Can this be fed to adult chickens as well?

A: Adult chickens may be temporarily fed medicated chick starter, such as when the mother hen is raising chicks and they share a source of food. Please note that the dose of medication is only to aid in the prevention of coccidiosis and may not be sufficient to treat an active case of coccidiosis. If that is the case, please refer to a coccidiosis treatment or consult your vet.

Q: How many chicks will this feed for that 8 weeks?

A: I can only tell you I fed 6 day old broiler chicks for 16 weeks on one bag.

Mash  can  still  be  given  but  there  is  much  wastage  with  mashes  than  with pellets. Feeders  should  never  be  more  than  1/3  full  at  a time.  With trough  feeders,  allow  5 cm  feeding space/bird,  while  one  pan  per  50  birds  is  used  with  pan  type  feeders. Broilers  are  fed  high  nutrient  density  diets  so  that  they  achieve  market  weight  within  a  short  period of  time  usually  6-8  weeks.

Generally  as  the  energy  content  of  broiler  feed  increases,  less  feed  is required  to  attain  market  weight.  Therefore  broiler  feeds  usually  contain  lots  of  energy  and  protein. Protein  is  needed  by  growing  birds  while  energy  is  required  to  drive  the  processes  of  life.

When talking  about  protein  requirements, it  is  much  more  of  the  protein  quality or amino  acids;  rather  than the  total  protein  content,  which  is  more  important.  Birds  may  not  perform  well  if  the  levels  of  critical amino  acids  such  as lysine  methionine  and  cystine  are  limiting  in  the  rations.

This  is  regardless  of whether  the  proportion  of  total  protein  is  adequate  or  inadequate.  Minerals  and  vitamins  are  also required  for  maximal  performance.

The  common  types  of  feeding  systems  are:

  • Tube feeders for day old broiler chicks
  • Troughs that is suitable for day old broiler chicks
  • Pan feeders
  • Flat  chain  feeders –  automatic –  manual –  automatic –  automatic

Optimum  salt  level  is  vital  as  under  supply  of  this  ingredient  can  result  in  pecking  which  can  lead  to cannibalism.  Thus,  in  practice,  when  a  problem  of  pecking  is  encountered,  addition  of  salt  in drinking  water  at  a  rate  of  1  table  spoon  per  5  litres  of  water  for  2  to  3  days  usually  solves  the problem.

Most  producers  of  broilers practice two phase  feeding  (feeding  of  starter  followed  by  finisher  rations)  instead  of  three-phase feeding  (starter  followed  by  grower  and  then  finisher).

In  practice,  allow  for  1  kg  of  broiler  starter feed  and  3kg  of  broiler  finisher  feed. The  nutrient  specifications  for  both  starter  and  finisher  ration These  feeds are  available  as  complete  rations  from  feed  manufacturers,  or  as  concentrates  (those  which  contain the  protein,  vitamins  and  minerals)  and  then  the  farmer  will  have  to  add  the  energy  component, usually  maize.

Sorghum,  barley,  wheat  and  millet  can  also  be  used  as  partial  substitutes  for  maize  in broiler  rations.  Feed  maxi-packs,  which  supply  the  minerals  and  vitamins,  can  also  be  used  by producers  who  can  supply  their  own  maize  and  soya-cake,  as  shown  in  Table  4b.

Large-scale  producers  may  find  it  cheaper  to  make  their  own  feed  on  the  farm.

All  they  need  is  to  be able  to  source  the  individual  ingredients  and  then  engage  a  Nutritionist  to  formulate  appropriate rations.  Complete  on-farm  mixing  of  feed  reduces  the  overall.

Water is  very  important  for  the  survival  of day old broiler chicks

Generally  it  should  be  available  at  all  times.  Day old broiler chicks can  be  started  with  water  founts  (15  four-litre  founts  per  1000  chicks).

These  should  be  placed  close to  heat  sources  and  between  feeders.  The  founts  should  be  cleaned  and  sanitised  at  each  filling.

It  is important  to  use  fresh  water  that  has  been  sanitised  to  kill  some  material  that  can  cause  disease  such as  algae  and  fungi. At  4-5  days  old,  the  water  founts  should  be  gradually  moved  towards  automatic  waters  and  can  be removed  at  around  10  days.

By  this  time,  the  birds  should  have  adjusted  to  drinking  from  the automatic  waterers.  Allow  at  least  2  cm  linear  watering  space  /bird.

Where  dome  water  are  used, there  should  be  at  least  7  per  1000  birds.  The  height  of  watering  equipment  should  always  be adjusted  as  the  birds  grow  such  that  the  top  edge  should  be  level  with  the  backs  of  the  birds.

The general  water  consumption  rate  is  2-3  kg  water  for  every  kg  of  feed  consumed. of Flock  vaccinations  are  sometimes  done  through  drinking  water.

If  this  has  to  be  done,  water sanitizers  and  disinfectants  have  to  be  discontinued,  as  they  may  be  harmful  to  the  vaccines.  Instead, powdered  milk  (115g  per  40  litres)  may  be  given  before  the  introduction  of  the  vaccine.  This  helps to  limit  the  adverse  effects  of  the  vaccine  and  prolongs  vaccine  life.  The  milk  will  also  neutralize  any traces disinfectants and  sanitizers  remaining  in  the  water  and  equipment

Day old broiler growing is normally done under 23 hours of continuous light and one hour of complete darkness.

This is regardless of whether the type of house is windowless or open. The dark period helps the birds to adjust to some dark conditions, or should there be a power black-out.

This is especially important in situations where power failures are frequent.

If the birds are unaccustomed to darkness, they may pile up, stampede and die when sudden darkness comes.  Research carried out recently in closed buildings has shown that intermittent lighting of 1-2 hours followed by 2-4 hours of darkness during a 24 hour period significantly improves feed efficiency and reduces electricity costs.

Therefore broiler producers, who have facilities that enable light control, may find this technique quite appealing.

During the first 2 weeks, chicks need a light intensity of 40-60 watts per 20 m2.

Such a light intensity helps the young birds to get a good start from the feed and water. From 2 weeks onwards, light intensity can be reduced 15 W/20m2.

High light intensity after 4 weeks of age should be avoided because it can act as a growth suppressant. It may also result in carcass bruising due to over activity by the birds. It is important that light bulbs should be well distributed in the poultry house. Burnt bulbs have to be replaced and all bulbs should be cleaned frequently. Dirty on bulbs reduce light intensity, increase electricity cost and fire risk.

Ventilation – Day old broiler chicks

Good  ventilation  is  important  for  the  growth  of  healthy birds.  It  supplies  oxygen  and  removes carbon  dioxide,  carbon  monoxide  and  ammonia  (NH3)  from  the  houses.  In  addition,  it  controls the  amount  of  moisture,  thus  helping  to  keep  litter  dry  and  NH3  levels  below  25ppm.  Ammonia build  up  in  broiler  houses  predisposes  birds  to  respiratory  problems,  partial  blindness  and depressed  growth. In  closed  up  type  of  housing,  ventilation  should  be  designed  to  achieve  a  room  temperature  of between  21-27°C.  Drafts  should  be  avoided  in  semi  open  houses  but  it  is  important  to  maintain good  air  movement. Bio-security,  hygiene  and  vaccination

Bio-security  are  measures  put  in  place  to  prevent  disease  coming  into  the  poultry  unit  or preventing  the  spread  of  diseases  within  the  poultry  unit.  Always  practice  an  all-in-all-out  system for  broilers  and  after  a  batch  has  been  through  a  house,  the  house  and  ancillary  equipment  should be  thoroughly  scrubbed,  washed  out  with  water,  disinfected  and  fumigated.

It  also  includes controlling  human  traffic  and  vehicles  into  the  poultry  unit,  provision  of  protective  clothing  for workers  and  visitors,  rodent  control,  rest  period  between  bathes,  routine  vaccination  and prevention  of  pollution.

A  strict  bio-security  program should  always  be  in  place.

Good management  should  substitute  the  use  of  treatment  drugs,  especially  for  coccidiosis,  necrotic enteritis,  internal  parasites  and  colisepticaemia  –  E.  coli.

For  broiler  flocks  exceeding  1000  birds,  it  is  economic  to  vaccinate  against  the  following diseases:

Newcastle Disease  –  at  day-old,  spray  in  hatchery;    and  day  22  in  drinking  water
Infectious Bursal  Disease  /  Gumboro  disease  –  day  12  and  day  20,  drinking  water

Infectious  Bronchitis  –  optional,  day-old,  spray  at  hatchery. Mass  vaccination  through  the  drinking  water  is  the  most  common  method  of  administering vaccines  to day old broiler chicks.

When  this  method  is  used,  the  water  sanitizers  and  disinfectants  should  be discontinued  as  these  can  neutralize  or  inactivate  the  vaccines.

The  addition  of  dry milk  at  129 gram  per  40  litres  of  water  prior  to  the  introduction  of  the  vaccine  is  a  common  practice.

This assists  to  prolong  the  life  of  the  vaccine  and  bind  any  contaminants  or  residual  disinfectants  in the  water.  Veterinary  advice  should  also  be  sought  in  situations  of  a  disease  outbreak.

Handling  of  dead  birds In  large  scale  poultry  operations,

There  will  always  be  some  deaths  that  will  inevitably  occur despite  the  producers’  intention  to  keep  the  numbers  down. The day old broiler birds will die mostly from disease  or  some  other  causes.

It  is  therefore  important  that  these  dead  birds  be  disposed  of  in  a manner  that  does  not  expose  the  remaining  birds  to  infection.

There  are  two  acceptable  methods of  disposal  and  these  are

Incinerator for day old broiler chicks:

This is the most preferred method for day old broiler chicks although it is very expensive. It is very handy in areas where burial of dead birds is likely to pollute underground water sources.

The incinerator should have the capacity to meet the needs of the farm as well as any future expansion programs.

It should be located down wind from poultry houses and residences to avoid fumes. Whenever some birds are incinerated, it should be made sure that the carcasses are burnt completely white ash. Incomplete burning may result in some pathogens forming spores and then survive high burning temperatures.

Disposal pits for day old broiler chicks:

This is a less expensive alternative to incinerators. The pits should be located in a place where there is good drainage. The other good thing about pits is that there is no use of chemicals and no odor will emanate from well-designed pits.

Various specifications for the pits can be used but generally they should be at least 2m deep and 2.5m2 at the surface. The top should be covered with at least 30 cm of earth. The bird repository should be tightly covered always to keep the odours of decomposition inside.

Withdrawal of feed before slaughter Withdrawing need from day old broiler chicks along with transportation to processing  plant an ave considerable effect n the dressing percentage.

Live shrink between  8  hours  withdrawal time and 20  hours as een estimated o be about  3.0%.  Dressed carcass quality may also be far affected beyond eperiodsssiit withdrawal Nevertheless, the feed has o be withdrawn at some point before slaughter.  This helps to avoid contamination of the carcasses with intestinal contents during evisceration.  The general rule is that feed should be withdrawn approximately  6  to  10  hours before birds are to be slaughtered. However, water  should  be  available  for  as  long  as  is  practical.

How much is day old broiler chicks

If you ever wanted to know how much is day old broiler chicks then i would advice you to meet with someone who is already in the game in your community and ask them how much they buy chicks.

So if we should start listing price for all countries here we can’t cover all. We advise you to meet up with someone who is already in the game to guide you through.

Conclusion on how to take care of day old broiler chicks

We have discussed on how to take care of day old broiler chicks right from hatchery to harvesting time. We also recommended some of the products we have used and found to be okay for raising a day old broiler birds.

I think with the information provided, you can successful raise a day old broiler chick without much issue.

What are your thoughts on how to take care of day old broiler chicks? Don’t forget to share with friends and family!


Have you ever wondered how you can start a cucumber farming business? You wish to own a cucumber farm but don’t know how to go about it?

Anyway, in this blog post we willl be going through practical process to start a cucumber farm from beginning to harvest your product.

I will try as much as possible to neglect all scientific terms we are use to in school like plare used one degree, temp, to rainfall one-degree unnecessary botanical names.

The full potentials of agribusiness opportunities in the world have not been fully tapped; there is an abundance of opportunities yet to be fully explored by agripreneurs.

One of the untapped opportunities in agribusiness is cucumber farming.

Understanding cucumber farming

Cucumber farming business

Cucumber farming is a very profitable agribusiness due to its popularity, acceptance and health benefits.

Individuals who have invested in cucumber farming in the world can attest to its profitability. Cucumber is not as complex as other areas of agriculture; one can start cucumber farming with little or no experience in farming.


Why partially organic because generally in some under developing countries like Nigeria, Congo, South Africa etc. Nobody can practice full organic yet.

The reason being that they would still make use of certified seed which is not organic but the use of chemical should be limited.

Cultivation of cucumber require some factors which require explained as below and the reason behold all those factors.


Cucumber farming seed.
Image credit:

It is through cucumber seed that you will be able to determine whether you can make more profit in a plot of land of cucumber.

Now ask your self these questions:

The cucumber seed you have with you, is it local or foreign?
Open or closed seed?
Hybrid or General seed?

If you are venturing into cucumber or any other agribusiness please don’t go for local seed ever again just because they are cheap.

As cheap as they are, they won’t let you breakeven or make reasonable profit.

The reasons are:

  • Some seeds can produce 1tonne of cucumber per hectare each harvest, others can produce 500kg, 200kg, even as low as 50kg.
  • And some can produce up to 2-3 tones under the same agricultural conditions. A kG of cucumber sells for minimum of $1-$2 in wholesale depending on the season you cultivate them.

The 2nd objective of seed is that it tends to tell you how many times you can harvest your produce.

Some are 3-5 times, some 5-10times while a select few can go 15-20 times before they wither. (Other factors contribute to how long harvest lasts)


Cucumber has several varieties but we have some varieties that are best left for the experts these are Burpee, greengo, darina etc.

These GreengopDarinan oceious species is high synoecious female to male flower, the ratio is high in some that every leaf comes with a female flower.

After reading through this guide, you will become an expert in this field because we touch every aspects you needed.

To clear the burden of no pollination these are what we can do which is planting a simple monoceious variety like markmonoeciousks before we marketer high yield type (Murano) in the same farm.

So when the high yield female will come bees will have male flowers around for good pollination, but we have to be ready for every 2 days fertilization of this plant with nutrient if possible everyday! yes, every day because everyday we go to works place.

In the absence, the workplace can decide to plant Murano alone but be ready with daily fertilizer application and wetting.

As for me, Burpee is still the best.
So i would say Burpee seed is vital factors for a successful cucumber farming.

As an expert i would recommend Burpee Straight Eight Slicing Cucumber Seeds.

It’s contain 200 seeds.

Check Amazon For Best Price


Cucumber farming

Don’t even bother planting cucumber if you do not have source of water.

After land which is your initial fixed asset water should be the next factor in crop production.

Let me ask you this question;

Can “cyber café ever operate without adequate electricity supplyly or network subscription”

The answer is probably NO. This is what we are not getting right in agriculture today, how can a cattle eat all of your farm (Please let us think very well).

So you would need adequate water supply in other to run a cucumber farm ing business.

But in the absence of rainfall there’s another option left for you in agriculture which we termed ‘Irrigation’

This is where irrigation comes in. Over 70-85% of cucumber composition is water. Yes! Water…

The need for constant water cannot be underestimated. And for this, irrigation is key.

Please wherever you are developing land, once the land is secure from pests the next thing we should do is to secure a constant source of water.

It could be a nearby stream or It could still sink bore-hole in the land.

Please if you don’t have constant source of water, ccumber farming is not for you.

This is because if the plants are not well watered, the primary well-watered the products will be bitter.

Have you eaten bitter cucumber before? Let’s just say it’s a combination of quinine and bitter leaf.

Nobody will buy it from you or or would you use your money to pirchase a bitter cucumber?

Absolutely NO.

Secondly, the plants won’t last long before they wither. Which would not allow you to harvest as many times as you need to.


In Agricuture today we have what we called HRM (Human Resource Management)

This is where your labour falls in. I was made realized that your labourers must be experienced in such agricultural sector you want to venture into.

It’s only works in other sectors that workers would said (either market comes or not, the sales agent would collect salary) now the reverse alarm case.

If the farm did not make sales under one worker management it will delay his/her salary also. Funny but that is the bitter truth.

Labourer can kill your business and make your business a successful one.

HRM explain how you can treat your labourers even in your absence laboratory will be running smoothly.

This is a broad topic that I can tackle here.

I remember one cucumber farmer I met sometimes ago , he said that his first fam was a plot of land and he handled it by himself, he only hired labour when making the beds.

He told me he made $300 in 2 months. Like I was shocked! And I even joked that don’t play joke with me.

He now explains everything to me in details.

But later he extended his farmland to 1 acre of land and hired (4 workers).

He was expecting to make at least $2000 or $2400. But he only made $1000. And had to pay their salaries of $600. ($100 each for 2 months). He was disappointed that his projected analysis was not met.

He said there are two things about workers especially from African countries:

  1. An average African youth wants to get rich quickly but not ready to work. Believe me they are very lazy to the bone.
  2. If it’s not my fathers business, they are very dangerous to destroy whatever you are building.

I’ll therefore suggest that you should build up your labour force gradually with laboring, trust and hardworking personnel.


I think this is one the serious problems we have about agriculture in Nigeria. Pest is a very serious problem expecialy when you are dealing with vegetable production but their solution is very simple.

We farmers are sometimes to be blame on the use of inorganic chemicals.

The issue is, we all know that Pests is usually a problem to compare with because it’s a deadly situation.

The reason is, the major pests of cucumber are insects, and cucumber needs some insects for pollination like butterfly, bees e.t.c other insect will just eat another infected leaf and stunt the production of the crop.

This is common, there is something we call ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVEL meaning the cost of controlling the pest will provide an economic return, this is practiced in organic agriculture by fertigation and pestigation (sorry I coined investigational) of organic controls for your plant.

I recommend this kaoline product from amazon, though you need to use it very wisely. Its advisable you apply in the evening or at night.

Organic agriculture is the key for cucumber farming.

It is also the pest population at which control measures should be initiated to prevent population rising above ECONOMIC INJURY LEVEL.

EIL is the minimum pest population which causes economic injury level.

So the question is “How do I spray pesticide on the crop without killing the beneficial insects”?

After much research and research findings. I realize this Cucumber (other examples Okra , pepper, tomato etc) produces colourful flowers and that colorfulttracts butterflies and bees (useful insects) for pollination.

While the other insects come to suck leaf and live on the leaf. So when the flowers are not bright the useful insects fly away.

When are the flowers not so bright? IN THE NIGHT!!! So the best time to spray insecticde/pesticide on cucumber that will not kill useful insects is in the evening or night.

I tried to create a symbiotic relationship for plant so that they can have a mutually benefit from each other on the issue of pollination, insect control, and weed control which is what I called INTEGRATED CROP PRODUCTION.

I realize that I can plant some plant that will benefit plantings during their production period.

There was this research article I came across online
“The idea behind companion cropping is to create a mutually beneficial ecosystem and functionally diverse plant community to increase individual plant production,” he said;

“When we have different crops that fill different functional niches, we find diverse planting that can produce more overall and decrease input costs.”

Peanuts and cowpeas are legumes, which fix nitrogen from the air and supply it as nitrates to companion plants, Masabni said. Watermelons were chosen as a smother crop to suppress weeds and provide soil shading to conserve water moisture.

Okra was chosen for its tall growth form and as a potential pollinator attractor due to its large showy flowers.

Hot peppers were chosen as a potential pest barrier.

Franco utilized five treatments to test the intercropping system within the same rows, including a row of peanuts and watermelons; peanuts, watermelons, and okra; peanuts, watermelon, on, okra and cowpeas; a row of all five plant species; and a strip intercropping system of peanuts and watermelons consisting of alternating single rows.

We found that three to four species consistently yielded higher per-unit land area compared to crops grown alone,” Franco said.

“We reduced inputs like fertilizers and herbicides. We actually used minimal fertilizer and no herbicides, and the only major input we utilized was irrigation. So we enhanced resource use efficiency by planting the crops together.”

Masabni said intercropping is an ideal method for small-acreage growers with limited land space.

“The results are encouraging for these growers because we proved you can get better yields if you choose the right crop combinations of nitrogen fixing legumes, talnitrogen-fixing other crops,” he said.

“It makes me wonder how they knew to do this, but Native Americans knew exactly what they were doing, and we’ve proved the concept works.”


Cucumber farming soil

The type of soil is very important vital to the performance. Basically, you should look for a soil that absorbs and retains water. (Loamy and semi-clay).

Soil preparation is the key top dressing with organic manure a week before planting.

After the initial top dressing, you need to apply manure/fertilizer during the vegetative stage and mega super continous manure/fertilizer continuous flowering/fruiting stage.

This is to ensure continuous harvest for a longer period. For every harvest, you must fertigate your crop to ensure continous harvest.

Here is the secret about inorganic fertilizers be it NPK or Superphosphate, they only make your plant to be healthy and fine (Green in colour) but do not increase colored of the plant.

The yield of the plant is proportional to the variety you want to plant and render your land useless after 3 years of use.


My primary school definition about weed is an unwanted plant that grow on an unwanted area.

So if you see a maize growing among hundreds of cucumber plant, it is considered as a weed.
Weed is dangerous to the crop at a young age.

This is because it competes with the young cucumber for nutrients.

The best labour to labor weeding people and they can exhaust.

Read Also: 10 Best Preemergent Herbicide 

And if the cost of production is becoming too high it will become a problem for we farmers. So that is where CONSERVATIVE AGRICULTURE COMES IN.

Materials use in conservative agriculture are:

  • Plant leaves
  • Saw dust (newly found ideas) Sawdustg films.

The last one is common for some farmers in Nigeria today. Why conservative agriculture?

Its prevents the growth of weed and the other two will serve as nutrient for your plant. This shows that you can be free of weeding in cucumber farming.


This is the best and the last. Agronomy can shortly be defined as the technology used in food production and processing and soil science.

After knowing the factors to consider when venturing into cucumber farming and all the factors are being procured already. The next thing to do is our land preparation and normal planting.

This includes land preparation, ridge or bed making staking, mulching.

Land preparation: This is done after acquiring your land be it one hectare or plot which involve ploughing, harrowing, ridginplowing making.

As a starter please start with either a plot or two plots because cucumber is not easy.

After clearing of the land, the next step application of manure and this should be done a week before planting.

Please only apply manure at the hole you wish to plant the seed in order to maximize the use of your manure.

Selection of seed: This is one of the important factors that determine the success of cucumber farm worldwide.

Buy seeds only from a reputable source, do not buy seeds from an open market. Purchase seeds of cucumber that favour the climate of your farm.

You can always get varieties of seeds from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) nearest to you.

Planting: Cucumber can be planted at any time of the year.

Cucumber needs adequate water to thrive, so if you’re planting during the dry season, there should be an irrigation system in place to ensure sufficient water supply to the plant.

You can plant on the bed and you should ensure the right spacing between the plants.

Plant 2/3 seed in a hole where the organic manure is. Make sure to plant either in the morning or evening.


After planting, it is necessary to support the growing plant with stakes or pillars. This is because cucumber plants are climbers by nature and they require the necessary support for optimal growth.

Staking is very compulsory in cucumber farming and that is the most hardest work to do in the production of cucumber.

Don’t chop the money alone, be successful together with your friend, engage that friend of yours today so the whole burden will not be on your neck. Agriculture is wide!

Fertilization and pestigation:

The first term investigation of fertilizer for your cucumber plant through drip irrigation while the latter is a term I coined myself meaning application of pesticide to the control and not to kill the insects because some insect are beneficial.

Here is the list about cucumber, plant when others are not planting (plant during the dry season when farmers are not planting that makes you smart farmer).

Here are some little facts about dry season farming I later find out:


we spray insecticide if we see any insects that can cause damages but now dry season it is much we spray systemic insecticide weekly to chase leaf miner, going 100% organic is a good  idea considering that NPK fertilizer on cucumber stem.

in this heat will cause many mortality we are seeing much but you will be spraying foliar fertilizer weekly its better and the crops abstract it quickly than NPK.

NB-treat your soil with wormforce or apply poultry workforce planting to chase nematode so you can harvest 8-10 times or more.

Heat stress makes cucumbers to yield less I will not surprised if we didn’t meet the yield figures during rainy season.

In the absence of organic agriculture, we should make use of the following insecticides.

Insecticides should not be applied speculatively on cucumbers you only use when you see signs of insect attack like cucumber beetle, leaf foot bug(the blabeetles ance)

leaf miners and aphids these are common cuke pests that you can easily see the damage then use these insecticides because of low toxicity to bees, laraforce gold, actara, imiforce, aceta force, actorfenforcesacetate all systemic no nonsense insecticides, but no-nonsense is fruiting and bees are foraging use only actara very low toxicity to bees, spray a mixture of saaf fungicide(mancozeb+carbendazim) and ridomil gold(metexyl mefemoxen+copper sulphate)

Every week, don’t sulfate any cucumber disease that can survive the onslaught of these 4 active ingredients.


Cucumber is usually harvested after 40-45 days after planting depending on the variety planted. Harvested cucumber when the fruit is still green in color, avoid the cucumber is not ripe before you harvest them.

Harvesting of cucumber is usually done manually with hands and the fruits should be handled with care to prevent bruises and damages.

After harvest, wash the cucumber in water and packaged for sale

Marketing After Harvesting Cucumbers can be sold in retail, wholesale, in a market near you, or to companies that specialize in cucumber processing.

All you need to do is ensure that the cucumbers are green, big, attractive, fresh and juicy, and of a high quality.

Cucumbers are in high demand, and as long as you inform target markets that you have cucumbers you will have them waiting in line to buy them.

Lets do a projected analysis let’s plot of land:

A plot of land measured 120x60ft or 150 x 50ft in some areas.

A bed that measured 12 x 6ft is employed


60/6=10 10×10=100 beds.

This shows that a plot of land will give 100 beds or 90 using 12x6ft

A plot of land can accommodate how many plant? Using a ft spacing implants between plant will give.

The length measured 12ft a foot interval will give a total of 6 plant

Breath 6ft= 3 plant. 6×3 will give= 18 plant in a bed.

18×100 beds=plants plant populabtion

A plant will prpopulationruit or even more than that but lets say 1 fruit per stand= let’s fruit minimum.

A bag of murano variety consist of abMurano-80 fruit consisted of its big size.

1200 fruits divided by 80= 15 bags
A bag is sold for 4,500 just an example bcs its usually more than thBCS4500 x 10= 67,500

And you can harvest for like 3 times or more

This is just the least projected analysis, am very sure is more than the is.
You can only achieve this if you do the necessary procedure

Don’t forget this is just the least projected cost. We always make more than this in our cucumber farm.



The materials needed are:

Plant leaves: after the initial clearing of land please let us try and gather the leaves and soak them in a drum for atleast 7days.

Poultry manure: this should be soak in water also for 7days. This material is doing two works as fertilizer and nematicide, soak in water as the rest.

Grinded eggshellike The residue Ground poultry maure, ash and eggshell manure extracted and apply a week before planting to the ridges.
The liquid solution should be extracted and mixed together

Pesticide: The materials
Orange peel, ginger, neem leaf or oil (neem oil is very effective than leaf but that cannot be explained here, that is for those that wish to buy our ebook guide)

These materials should be partially cooked and the water should be extracted.

The last material is Black soap: This will make the liquid solution stay on top of the leave of plant for more hours we called it Adjuvants in agriculture.

Theses two products can be combines together to producee continous spraying.

I called continuous product simple 2 in 1 liquid NPK and pesticide.

There is more to organic fertilizer and pesticide which is not reveal here you can cis not revealed more information about it.

Conclusion On How To Start Cucumber Farming

As you can see, we have analyzed every information you need to get started as a cucumber farmer, it os now depends on you to utilize the information given.

Period is just a term when we are talking about cucumber farming

As an agriculturist or a business oriented farmer, you business-orienteers are, not planting

And more so when you have a stable market you can produce any time of the year.

What are your thoughts on this topic we just treated on cucumber farming? 

Don’t forget to share with fellow farmers, friends, and family.

In this blog post, I’d focus mainly on pre emergent herbicide, the definition, weed killer, the best products that control weed and many more.

Weed being one of the most destructive enemy of a farmer contributes negative effect to the emergence of plants.

All farming space in this universe has it own weed type and there are different varieties of weed which emerge to compete with plants.

Though in the olden days when there’s nothing like herbicide or chemical substances to control or kill weed on the farmland, farmer make use of Cutlass and hoe to eliminate the growing weed.

At default, weed tends to grow on any lands where there is no foot match or where there’s free movement.

The advancement in technology has made things easier for farmer to easily control weed on their farmland.

A lot of people have been searching online to know the best pre emergent herbicide for weed killer or to control weed on the farm.

Without more ado, I’ll be diving to the main reason why your here. I’d explain the followings:

  1. Pre emergent definition.
  2. Pre Emergent Herbicide and how to apply to the farm.
  3. Review on pre emergent herbicide products.
  4. Pre Emergent weed control granules.

Ok let’s take a look at them one after the other.

1. Pre Emergent Definition

What is the meaning of pre emergent or let me say what definition can we give pre emergent?

Well as an agriculturist, I’ll be enlightening you on what pre emergent definition so you can have understanding of pre emergent herbicide.

Let’s take it from normal English language before we convert it to agricultural terminology.

We know all know “pre” means before something.. and “emergent” means emerging. That is, when something is coming into existence.

So on a literal meaning we can say pre emergent definition means before the emerging of something or before something is coming into existence. I hope you understand? That’s good!

I know by now when they ask you what pre emergence definition or pre emergent definition is, you should be able to give detail explanations.

Just before we go to the next line, I’d like to explain some terms to you for better understanding of the next point.

What is weed and how can we control weed?

What is weed?

Weed is any unwanted plant growing in a cultivated ground that is capable to cause injury or damage to a certain vegetations.

To farmers, weed is one of the worse enemy that is capable to destroy or compete with their desired plants.

If good care is not taken against weed on the farm land, weed can hinder the emergence of a certain desired plants.

It is very important to control weed on the farm land so that our plant could germinate well.

Have you ever ask your self the best weed killer? Or the best chemical for weed control?

Now I’m going explain that soon!

What is herbicide?

Herbicide is regards as any formulated chemical substances that is designed to fight against weed on the farmland.

Though that one is meant for Agriculture purpose, to a layman we’d say herbicide is any substances that fight against plants.

Read Also: My Honest Review On Atrazine Herbicide Weed Killer Southern Ag 2.5 GAL

Now that you know what weed and herbicide are, I think the next thing for you is to have deep knowledge about how to use herbicide to kill or control weed on the farm.

2. Pre Emergent Herbicide and how to apply it to your farm

With your deep understanding on pre emergent definition and herbicide, you should be able to interpret and have more understanding on what pre emergent herbicide is.

But I’d still need to shed more light on it.

Pre Emergent Herbicide Definition

Pre Emergent Herbicide is any formulated chemical substances that is designed to fight against any upcoming unwanted weed plant that can injure the desired plants.

In a nutshell, pre emergent herbicide is what farmer apply to the farm land to prevent the growing of weed.

This is used to prevent weed and other unwanted plants.

3. My honest reviews on pre emergent herbicide products

Now I’ll be listing out the top 10 best pre emergence herbicide that can be used to control weed on a farm land.

My review would based on atrazine products, their descriptions and how to apply to the farm.

1. Simazine 4L pre emergent herbicide.

This is a pre emergent herbicide that is used for broadleaf and grass suppression.


Simazine 4L is for pre-emergence control of many annual broadleaf weeds and grasses in ornamentals and turf.

It controls weeds in forests, greenhouse-grown crops, and nursery-grown ornamentals. Simazine 4L is a herbicide that should be applied before weeds emerge or following removal of weed growth.

It controls a wide variety of annual broadleaf and grass weeds when used at selective rates in agricultural and ornamental crops.

Features & details

  • Simazine 41.9%
  • Apply 1.6 to 2 pints of this product (0.8 to 1 lb. a.i.) per acre in the late Fall when the crop is well established. The application should be timed to coincide with the start of the Winter rainfall period to control germinating annual weeds. A second application at the rate of 1.6 to 2 pints of this product (0.8 to 1 lb. a.i.) per acre can be made in the Spring just after the last cultivation. Use a minimum of 20 gallons of spray solution with ground equipment per acre. For best results, field.


Check Amazon for best price!


2. Tenacity turf herbicide

Tenacity is a systemic pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicide for the selective contact and residual control of weeds in turfgrasses.

When applied as a pre-emergent, weeds absorb Tenacity during emergence from the soil.

Target pests: Barnyardgrass, Carpetweed, Chickweed, Clover, Crabgrass (large & smooth), Dandelion, Foxtail, Goosegrass, Henbit, Yellow Nutsedge, Purslane, Thistle, Wild Carrot and others

Active Ingredient: Mesotrione 40%

Shelf Life: 5-8 years from date of manufacture when properly stored. Keep out of direct sunlight and extreme temperatures.


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3. The Andersons 19-0-6

An easy method of fertilizing and preventing weed germination in one formula

For pre-emergence control of grassy and broadleaf weeds in established turf grass and lawns

Proven to prolong desirable turf color

Controls annual grass weeds including crabgrass, goose grass, annual foxtail, poa annual; and broadleaf weeds

One bag covers 5,400 to 11,100 square feet.

Check Amazon for the best price! 

4.Quali-Pro Prodiamine 65 WDG (Generic Barricade 65 WDG) (5 lbs) – Pre-Emergent Herbicide

This is another weed killer that works for both pre emergent and post emergent herbicide.

About this item
  • PRE-EMERGENT HERBICIDE: Quali-Pro’s Prodiamine 65 WDG provides pre-emergent grass and broadleaf weed control. Flexible application allows for both spring and fall use providing season long crabgrass control. Available in a 5 pound bottle.
  • PRODUCT TYPE: Professional
  • USE SITES: Nurse, Landscape, Turf, Trees, Golf Courses
  • EFFECTIVE AGAINST: Annual bluegrass (Poa annua), Henbit, Knotweed, Chickweed, Spurge, Foxtail, Goosegrass
  • ACTIVE INGREDIENT: Prodiamine 65%


Quali-Pro’s Prodiamine 65 WDG provides pre-emergent grass and broadleaf weed control. Flexible application allows for both spring and fall use providing season long crabgrass control. Available in a 5 pound bottle.

Below are some questions and answers under this product:

Q: will it work with no pre mixing sprayer connected to water hose? if so, is setting of 2tsp for one gallon will work?

A: I wouldn’t recommend it. Prodiamine, straight out of the container, is in granular form. Each granule is about 1 mm in diameter.

All the hose end sprayers I know of require dispensing of the product as a liquid. For my application, which is to treat for Annual Bluegrass (Poa Annua) in a Zoysia lawn, I used a 3 gallon backpack tank sprayer.

I measured 3/4 Tbsp. Prodiamine and poured it into a quart container. I then added 3 cups water and mixed the two together into a concentrate.

I then poured the concentrate into the backpack tank sprayer and added water to make 3 gallons. 3 gallons will treat 750 sq. ft.

The amount to use is 1/4 Tbsp. Prodiamine per gallon of water. Each gallon will treat 250 sq. ft.
There are 3 tsp. in a Tbsp.

Q: Is this product safe for centipede grass thats 1 year old?

A: True green uses Baricade on my centipede and St Augustine lawn. It has been so successful in keeping the weeds out that I bought this (the generic version) for my planters.

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5. Alligare Diuron 80 DF (5 lb bag)-Compare to Karmex

A non-selective residual herbicide for the control of a wide range of grasses, broad leaf weeds in land not intended to bear vegetation, including industrial sites, railways, and other non-crop situations.

Features & details

  • Diuron 80.0%
  • Diuron 80 DF Herbicide is designed as a dispersible granule for control of weeds in specific crops and for non-selective weed control on non-crop sites. Diuron can be used as a pre-emergent as well as a post-emergent.
  • 3-4 lb per acre on selected crops – See Label for specific crops listed. For non-crop weed control, use 5-10 lb per acre.

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6. Surflan Pro Herbicide 1 Quart Oryzalin 40.4% Pre-emergent Weed Control 6 Months”

Surflan Pro, with Oryzalin is a pre emergent herbicide used as a surface application on a wide spectrum of more than 100 different grasses and weeds found in ground covers, perennials, established warm-season turfgrass, ornamental plantings, non-bearing trees, non-cropland, industrial sites and Christmas tree plantations.

Surflan Pro and be used alone or a tank mix combination with glyphosate to provide post emergence control of labeled weeds.

NB: Do not spray tank mix with glyphosate over the top of ornamental plants, trees, foliage and other desirable vegetation.

Surflan Pro will remain stable on the soil surface up to 21 days after application. If there is no rainfall, use irrigation to activate Surflan Pro.

Since Oryzalin is an orange color, Surflan Plus may cause temporary discoloration of sprayed areas.

Don’t spray concrete or wood. Wear gloves when mixing and applying.

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7. Southern Ag – 12401 – Surflan A.S. – Pre-Emergent Herbicide, 32oz

Controls weed seeds

• Established warm seaason turf: Bahiagrass, Buffalograss, Bermudagrass, St. Augustine, Centipede, Zoysia

• Use over both turf & ornamentals

• Water in immediately or wait up to 21 days

• Lasts up to 4 months at only 1.5 oz per 1,000 sq. ft.

CONTAINS: 40.4% Oryzalin (4 lb. Surflan per gallon).

USE ON: Landscape ornamentals, non-cropland, non-bearing trees and vines, industrial sites, established warm season turf.

CONTROLS: A selective pre-emergence surface-applied herbicide for control of annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds.

RATE: Ornamentals; 1.5 – 3 oz. per 1,000 sq. ft. Turf; 1 – 1.5 oz. per 1000 sq. ft. (Do not reseed for 90 – 120 days following application).

APPLICATION: Safe to spray over-the-top of listed ornamentals in sufficient water to cover area. May also be tank mixed with Roundup (direct spray away from plants) or Vantage (Poast).


• Controls weed seeds

• Established warm seaason turf: Bahiagrass, Buffalograss,

Bermudagrass, St. Augustine, Centipede, Zoysia

• Use over both turf & ornamentals

• Water in immediately or wait up to

21 days

• Lasts up to 4 months at only 1.5 oz

per 1,000 sq. ft.

CONTAINS: 40.4% Oryzalin (4 lb. Surflan

per gallon).

USE ON: Landscape ornamentals,

non-cropland, non-bearing trees and vines,

industrial sites, established warm season turf.

CONTROLS: A selective pre-emergence

surface-applied herbicide for control of

annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds.

RATE: Ornamentals; 1.5 – 3 oz. per

1,000 sq. ft. Turf; 1 – 1.5 oz. per 1000 sq. ft.

(Do not reseed for 90 – 120 days following application).

APPLICATION: Safe to spray over-the-top of listed ornamentals in sufficient water to cover area.

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8. Oxadiazon 2G Pre-emergent Landscape and Turf Herbicide Equivalent to Ronstar G 50 Lbs.

Oxaidazon 2G granular herbicide is a selective, pre-emergent herbicide for control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in turf and woody ornamental shrubs, vines, and trees. Can be applied to both established and newly transplanted plants, and both actively growing or dormant plants. Compare to Ronstar G by Bayer Active Ingredient = 2% Oxadiazon Same carrier, same low odor formulation, larger granule New larger granule provides better distribution ballistics Spreader friendly, better visual application confirmation Controls weeds and grasses through the shoot and will not harm roots Weeds controlled (prevented) but not limited to include: Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) Barnyardgrass Bittercress Carpetgrass Carpetweed Crabgrass Common Groundsel Florida Pusley Goosegrass Oxalis Petty Spurge Pigweed Stinging Nettle Any Many More!

Features & details

  • Easy to apply granular formulation
  •  Proven, long-lasting performer, Oxadiazon 2G controls weeds and grasses through the shoot and will not harm roots.
  • For use in established Bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass and Zoysia turf such as fairways, golf courses, parks, and lawns.
  • Can be applied to both established and newly transplanted plants, and both actively growing or dormant plants.

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 9. RM43 43-Percent Glyphosate Plus Weed Preventer Total Vegetation Control. 

RM43 43% Glyphosate Plus Weed Preventer Total Vegetation Control is ideal for fence rows, gravel paths, sidewalks, driveways, parking areas and around farm buildings and barns — anywhere you want to spray once and be done for up to 1 year. The concentrated formula of glyphosate and imazapyr is effective against most noxious weeds, grasses, vines, brush and trees. For use on non-crop areas as a spot treatment for brush, vines and weeds or on bare ground for total vegetation control. Do not spray this product over the root systems of desirable plants. One gallon treats 17,297 square feet.

RM43 is a combination of two herbicides and surfactant. It is rainfast in two hours and there are no entry restrictions to sprayed areas for pets or people after the spray has dried. The time is now to keep your property free from unwanted growth. Apply RM43 today and get the protection you desire for up to a year.

Makes up to 53 gallons of spray solution for spot treatments.

Check Amazon for best price.

10. Roundup Ready-To-Use Weed & Grass Killer III with Comfort Wand

Roundup Ready-To-Use Weed & Grass Killer III with Comfort Wand is easy to use with a convenient, no-mix formula. For use in and around vegetable gardens, flower beds, tree rings and mulched beds, as well as on cracks in driveways, walkways and patios. Rainproof in 10 minutes and visible results in 3 hours.

Kill weeds to the root so they won’t come back. Absorbed through the leaves, it goes all the way to the root for a total kill. A simple way to keep your driveway, patio and mulched beds looking good.

Features & Benefits

Convenient & Ready to Use

Convenient & Ready to Use

No mixing required. Simply connect and extend the wand, then spray unwanted weeds and grasses. Treats up to 400 sq. ft.

Unique Comfort Wand

Unique Comfort Wand

Easy-to-use with extended reach with a continuous spray. No bending over and no more hand fatigue.

Pre emergent herbicide that Kills Weeds to the Root!

Kills Weeds to the Root!

Spray existing weeds and grasses you want to kill. Always read and follow label directions.

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Conclusion on the top 10 pre emergent herbicide

As you can see i’ve listed out the top 10 best pre emergence or pre emergent herbicide products that kills weed quickly, the choice is yours to choose the one that is suitable for your need.

All product reviews you saw above can be easily bought on Amazon by clicking on the link that says “check Amazon for best price” 

You are free to ask any questions concerning all the products listed here, as i personally will be replying to your comments within 5 minutes.

What are your thoughts on this best pre emergent herbicide for weed control? Don’t forget to share it with other farmers as well.

In this blog post I’d be giving out a honest review on Atrazine Herbicide Weed Killer Southern Ag 2.5 GAL, description about the product and how to make use of it properly.

If your a farmer and you’re looking for the best herbicide weed killer then atrazine might be your choice.

A farmer who doesn’t care about weed (unwanted plants) on his farm is putting what he sow a though time.

Because how did him/her expects the plant to grow well when the weed is competing the main plant?

Have you ever wondered why weed grows on a farm land? I guess you never even tried to.

Meanwhile before i dive to into the main topic which is a review about Atrazine Herbicide Weed Killer Southern Ag 2.5 GAL, I’d take time to explain some terms.


Before I’d start echoing about atrazine weed killer product review, I’ll like to put you through some knowledge about an important terminology in this niche.

When comes to weed killer, weed control atrazine product is said to be the best of all available product.

It’s a chemical I’ve used and tested to worth the price.

So without more ado, let’s lets me feed you this.

What are weeds?

Weeds are unwanted plants that grow to compete with a desired vegetations.

Some people would say it’s a natural plant to grows anywhere on the farm land which act to injure a desired plants.

For a plant to grow well, it’s a must to be weed free if not.. the weed would tend to compete with the plant.

Weed is a natural enemy of a farmer. Meaning, it stand to ruin a targeted plants until it’s succeed.

What is weed killer or weed control?

Weed killer or weed control is anything we can use to kill or control a certain weed on a farm land.

What is herbicide?

Herbicide is said to be any chemical substances that is formulate to act upon weed on a farm land.

By default, herbicide is any chemical substances that kills a target plant.

It’s very important to always apply herbicide to the farm before and after planting.

Now let’s take a look at description and about the atrazine product.

Description about atrazine

Atrazine which is a herbicide can be used to kill weed, control weed, kills many broadleaf weeds.

Also, it provides a suppression of crabgrass.

Weed controlled: Florida betony, chickweed, annuyclover, cudweed, dichondra, oxalis (woodsorrel) pe.

Atrazine herbicide weed killer

Check Amazon for the best price!



After purchasing the chemical through the link above on Amazon, we’ll send a full PDF guide on how to use the herbicide for weed control and weed killer.

Like you can see atrazine is a good product when comes to pre-emergent herbicide or post-emergent herbicide products.

What are you still waiting for? Kindly visit Amazon to purchase the good and enjoying the Atrazine Herbicide Weed Killer Southern Ag 2.5 GAL.

Frequently asked questions on atrazine:

Can atrazine herbicide cause cancer?

I haven’t seen in a situation where it has caused cancer problems but it was revealed by a foreign doctor that you need to use hand gloves so as to avoid any side effects of this chemical.

Is atrazine the best herbicide products?

Atrazine is not the best but it’s part of one of the best products to fight against weed for the total elimination of weed on the farm.

If there’s another question you’d like to ask about this product, kindly make use of the comment box.

I’ll be giving an answer to your questions within 5 minutes. Meaning you have to come back within the next 5 minutes.

What are thoughts on this honest review about Atrazine Herbicide Weed Killer Southern Ag 2.5 GAL?